Use of Vaccines through the Water supplies

 

Today there are several modified live vaccines which are available for administration through the water supply.

These would include:

Ileitis Lawsonia intracellularis,

Erysipelas Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae,

Salmonella choleraesuis

Escherichia coli E. coli

 

The following notes describe a method of preparing the water supply so that the vaccine has the best chance of working. However, please follow all advice given with the vaccine.

 

Vaccine storage

 

Ensure that the vaccine is stored properly on the farm. Some of the vaccines have very specific storage requirements

Preparation of the water supply

 

These vaccines are live. Therefore, the vaccine (organisms) will be killed and will be ineffective if there are any antibiotics or other agents, such as chlorine, in the water supply

Inactive chlorine with sodium thiosulphate or skimmed milk. Note with skimmed milk do not reconstitute with hot water and this may also kill the vaccine

Ensure that all antibiotics are removed from the water lines and feed lines for at least 2 days before vaccination. These antibiotics also need to be avoided for at least 5 days

The medicator

 

Ensure that the medicator is thoroughly cleaned. This should include the medicator itself, housing and filters used. But note that the medicator cannot have cleaning materials remaining in the medicator or buckets. Soaps can destroy these live vaccines

Measuring the amount of water to be drunk by the pigs the day before medication, for example around 10-11 am.

 

Fill a new, clean stock solution container with clean water and let the water run through the system

Record the starting volume of water

Note the time of day when you start running the water through the system

After a 4 hour period, measure the amount of water that was used out of the stock solution. This will be the amount of stock solution that will be required.

Pigs have drinking habits that will change with time. Between two individual days the drinking habit does not change much

Flush the water supply

 

Fill the stock solution container with clean water and allow medicator to run overnight to flush any remaining antimicrobial residues

Day of vaccination (Need the vaccine and sodium thiosulphate or skim milk)

 

Half an hour before the time yesterday when the water use consumption over the 4 hour period was calculated prepare to administer the vaccine

Stop the medicator temporarily

Empty the stock solution container.

Refill with the amount of clean water the pigs will use in 4-5 hours (as determined yesterday).

Add sodium thiosulphate (which neutralizes chlorine) to clear the water of chlorine. Note some of the trade brands contain a dye which allows you to track the product through the water supply. Alternatively skim milk is used.

 

Thaw the vaccine in warm water (not hot) water. This should take 10 minutes

When the vaccine has thoroughly thawed

Add the vaccine to the stock solution

Remove the drinker line to the last drinker

Start the medicator and allow the sodium thiosulphate or skim milk to flush through the water line. If a dye is included with the sodium thiosulphate the dye will be seen in the water.

Replace the drinker line to the last drinker

Allow the medicator to run until all the stock solution has been used.

Make another 4 litres of stabilizing solution to flush the remaining vaccine out of the water lines

During administration of vaccine monitor vaccine consumption

With a medicator using skim milk

 

Calculate the volume of water to be drunk within the 4 hours

Calculate the dilution ration ie 33:1 and divided the volume to be drunk by the dilution rate. This is the quantity of 3% skim milk to add to the bucket see calculator

If skim milk power is used add 2.5 g of skim milk powder for every litre of water to be drunk to the water in the medication bucket see calculator. Unfortunately the quantity of skim milk power makes mixing difficult to achieve.

Add the vaccine to the skim milk and mix well

Proceed with the vaccination

After vaccination has finished

 

Ensure that the water supply is fully restored.

Do not use water or feed medications for at least 5 days after vaccinating through the water lines. This is to prevent killing the vaccine before it adequately stimulates immunity.

Reasons for vaccine failure

 

Vaccine storage

Vaccines stored at the wrong temperature or variable temperatures. The -70C frozen ileitis vaccine is particularly sensitive if stored for a week in conventional fridge.

Vaccine mixed with chlorinated water or antibiotics

Time to deliver vaccine

Water consumption more than estimated

Pig Flow changes

Hot days water consumption increases variable. If weather very variable delay vaccine

Medicator problems

Loss of suction

Medicator hose come out of bucket

Vaccine timing

Vaccine administered too late too close to the outbreak

 

 

Ensure water medicator thoroughly cleaned

Ensure water supplies are thoroughly cleaned

Ensure that the water supply is readily accessible to all the pigs in the house

 

Estimator for the use of 3% skim milk and skim milk power

Using 3% skim milk

For 550 pigs of about 10 kg bodyweight it is required to measure the quantity of water they drink over the 4 hour period

Click on the spreadsheet below, the yellow squares can be customized.

Using skim milk powder