Breeder and Shelter Biosecurity Guidelines

               
Introduction

A private sanctuary rescued feral piglets whose mother had been killed. Subsequent brucellosis testing results are positive. Only adequate quarantine facilities convince the authorities that repeated testing of the entire herd for the disease should be carried out instead of destroying all pigs on the premises. Brucellosis did not move into the sanctuary.

 

Four pigs from a facility with many boarders stop by for a social visit. No biosecurity measures are taken. A contagious and potentially fatal diarrhea breaks out in textbook fashion at the sanctuary that housed the visiting pigs. Three sanctuaries end up in strict quarantine although only one actually had sick pigs. The others were exposed by indirect contamination. It is a costly and exhausting experience for the people involved and pigs suffer needlessly from an event that should have been easily avoided.

 

These are two recent incidents involving potbelly pigs. It is up to the potbelly pig community to be at the forefront of biosecurity and prevent future events such as this which could have much more dire consequences. Perhaps no other issue is more important to the safety of our pigs and paradoxically more overlooked than biosecurity.


As the social incident points out, the actions of one can affect us all. Those who have taken it upon themselves to be part of the potbelly pig community owe it to the pigs in their care and others in the community to become familiar with and use the very best biosecurity measures available.

 
It is important to remember that the measures described here may change as pathogens and disease prevention evolve. Because of the differences in the management practices between the commercial swine industry and potbelly pig facilities, our job is actually more difficult. Because our pigs are outdoors, it is much more difficult to control their environment. Therefore, managers must be much more aware of the health of their animals and extremely diligent in their protection.

 
Biosecurity is defined as procedures that are executed to keep new diseases from entering a farm. There are two basic concepts that affect the safety of pigs in breeding or sanctuary

1)      Proactive measures which keep new diseases from being introduced and

2)      Reactive measures to take should a disease or suspected disease appears at a facility.

All breeding and sanctuary farms should have a national identification number.

 

All-in/All-out definition:

1.                  Note all-in/all-out is not just about animals;  it includes water and feed utensils, all manure and bedding removed from the walls and floor, cleaning of the air and ventilation system and finally, but not least, management of any medicines, needles and syringes used during the isolation program.

2.                  When a pig that leaves the farm and comes back starts at step one again.

3.                  If a new pig is introduced to a quarantine group, the process starts over.


Cleaning protocols: The key to proper cleaning and disinfection is to first remove all visible manure from the room and equipment. Hot water and detergent make this job easier. Disinfection should only occur after all visible manure has been removed. Manure and urine can interfere with the effectiveness of disinfection. The hardness of the water can also affect how well a disinfectant works and different diseases may require different disinfectants.

 
Consult with your veterinarian to select the most suitable disinfectant and detergent for your particular situation.

 

Biosecurity Measures

Link to the biosecurity check

 

HEALTH ISSUES WITH NEW PIG

 

Pig arrives with no health documentation

Unacceptable

Pig has previous owners assessment only

Adequate

Health checks by veterinarian

Excellent

 

ISOLATION OR QUARENTINE AREA

The isolation (quarantine facility) is located

With direct contact with resident pigs

Unacceptable

Less than 300 yards from other pigs

Questionable

Greater than 300 yards from other pigs

Adequate

Greater than 1 miles from other pigs

Excellent

Isolation (quarantine) duration

Less than 30 days

Unacceptable

30-60 days

Adequate

60 days or more

Excellent

Separate clothing and boots

No change of clothing or boots

Unacceptable

Clothing and boots are washed

Adequate

Totally separate clothing and boots

Excellent

New pigs examined at the end of the day

Pigs in isolation examined at any time

Unacceptable

Pigs in isolation checked, change of clothing and wash hands

Adequate

Pigs in isolation checked last thing at night, 12 hours before checking home pigs

Excellent

People caring for the pigs in the isolation facility

Go back and forth between the isolation facility without scrub down and a change of outerwear

Unacceptable

Care for isolation pigs last and shower, change clothes before coming in contact with other pigs. The order of care should be young or susceptible but otherwise healthy animals first, all healthy adult animals next, sick or suspect and quarantined last.  Wash hands between groups.

Adequate

Person working in isolation has no contact with other pigs or pig facilities

Excellent

Health Care within the Isolation Facility includes

No records are kept, no vaccination or mange

Unacceptable

Detailed Health records kept, pigs vaccinated, mange eradication twice 14 days apart

Adequate

Health records kept, pigs vaccinated/mange eradication, blood tested for brucellosis and pseudorabies

Excellent

Daily cleaning and feeding procedures in the Isolation Facility

The same cleaning and feeding equipment are used for all pigs

Unacceptable

Separate cleaning, watering, feeding equipment for each pig or groups of pigs

Adequate

Manure and waste bagged separately.

Adequate

Foot baths and separate coveralls

Adequate

All of the above

Excellent

Veterinary involvement

No involvement with your vet

Unacceptable

Discuss requirements of isolation with your vet

Adequate

Your and your vet design and monitor the isolation requirements

Excellent

Cleaning and disinfection

Disinfection is absent or disinfectants selected at random

Unacceptable

Disinfectants are based on label claims

Questionable

Rooms are cleaned, disinfected and disinfectant allowed to dry before new pigs are moved in

Excellent

Ceiling, wall, flooring and equipment are all cleaned and disinfected between groups of pigs all-in/all-out  practiced

Excellent

 

FACILITY

LOCATION OF FACILITY

Aerosol transmission of organisms for 2 miles or more has been described for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Pseudorabies, Parvovirus and Foot and Mouth disease. Trying to stay real, groups of pigs should be situated greater than one mile apart from each other.

The facility is located

Less than 500 yards to another pig facility or a market or a slaughterhouse

Questionable

One mile or greater

Excellent

The nearest public road is

Less than 200 yards from the herd site

Questionable

200 to 500 yards from herd site

Adequate

Greater than 500 yards

Excellent

Access deterrents

 

No biosecurity or information signs at entrance

Questionable

No perimeter fence or gated driveway

Questionable

No perimeter fence, driveway is gated and not locked

Questionable

No perimeter fence, driveway is gated and locked

Adequate

An occupied dwelling exists on the site

Excellent

Perimeter fence exists and driveway is gated and locked

Excellent

Parking area and delivery trucks

Vehicles drive into areas pigs have access to

Unacceptable

A separate parking area for all vehicles 

Adequate

Delivery vehicles do not drive into pigs areas

Adequate

Visitor concerns

Visitors wear clothing brought with them

Unacceptable

Visitors must wash hands and arms and wear farm clothing

Adequate

Visitors log is kept and visitors sign in

Excellent

Visitors not allowed to bring vehicles into perimeter fence

Excellent

Feeding and water source

 

Pig has access to uncooked meat products

Unacceptable

The pig is fed lots of treats

Questionable

The pig has good access to feed and water

Adequate

The pigs are fed a balanced diet with access to pasture in the summer time and the pig’s body condition is kept below score 3

Excellent

Bedding source

 

Bedding is purchased without concern for its source

Questionable

Bedding is sourced from fields not using pig manure

Excellent

Bedding is stored with good rodent control measures

Excellent

Manure disposal

 

Manure is piled close to the pig’s housing

Questionable

Pigs have access to the manure pile

Questionable

Manure is stored and managed to minimize fly and mosquitoes

Adequate

The manure pile is isolated away from the pig and composed and reincorporated into the soil as quickly as possible

Excellent

Pest/Wildlife Control Program

No pest control program

Unacceptable

Excessive debris and vegetation inside perimeter

Unacceptable

Birds have access to feed and pigs eating

Unacceptable

Dogs, cats or wildlife has access to feed or pigs eating

Unacceptable

A pest control program is implemented by manager

Acceptable

A professional biosecurity program for pest control

Excellent

Feed spills are cleaned up immediately

Excellent

Rodents, feral animals and birds can be sources of pathogens for pigs. Rodents can carry the agents that cause Progressive Atrophic Rhinitis (Pasteurella), Escherichia coli scours, Leptospirosis, rotaviral diarrhea, Salmonellosis, and Swine Dysentery. Dogs can spread Swine Dysentery and Brucellosis pathogens. Wild animals can harbor Brucellosis, Leptospirosis, and Pseudorabies. Birds can carry Bordetellosis and tuberculosis. There is also evidence that birds can transmit the viruses that cause Classic Swine Fever, PRRS, Influenza and TGE. Cats are a potential source of toxoplasmosis. Flies and mosquitoes can transmit PRRSv.  It is difficult to control bird and other animals in outdoor facilities. This makes it paramount that managers be more cautious and observant. It must be remembered that the best biosecurity measures in the isolation facility will be thwarted if small animals are tracking their unwashed feet between groups of pigs or carrying pathogens from sick to well pigs.

Transportation

Pigs are transported in a dirty truck

Questionable

After moving a pig, the truck is thoroughly cleaned

Excellent

Pigs are transported in a specially modified car or in a protective box

Excellent

 

Compromised/sick animal care

Medication/needle/syringe storage and usage

Needles, syringes and medicines are disposed of in normal trash

Questionable

No record of medicine use is kept

Questionable

Medicines are used and stored as prescribed by the veterinarian

Excellent

Veterinarian contact

The farm has no working relationship with an experienced veterinarian prior to sickness.

Unacceptable

The farm contacts veterinarian at the first sign of illness 

Adequate

All pigs on the farm are examined at least once a year by a vet

Excellent

The veterinarian writes a health program each year

Excellent

Suspected illnesses

Sick pigs are left with the herd, sporadic monitoring

Unacceptable

Sick pigs are segregated and veterinarian consulted. All medical notes recorded including mediation doses

Adequate

All staff are trained in clinical signs of a sick pig

Excellent

Sickness Quarantine

No action taken once contagious disease suspected

Unacceptable

No pigs leave or enter farm until cleared by veterinarian

Acceptable

All possible contacts notified that there is a chance of contamination of disease

Adequate

Public posting of Farm Under Quarantine

Excellent

What happens if a pig dies?

Dead pigs are removed to on site location and left to decompose uncovered.

Unacceptable 

Dead pigs are buried in shallow grave without necropsy regardless of suspected cause of death

Unacceptable

Tractor or buckets used to remove dead pigs are thoroughly cleaned and disinfected before returning to use.

Adequate

Dead pigs receive necropsy and results are submitted to the Duchess Fund

Excellent

These notes were compiled by the NAPPA Biosecurity Committee 2007

 

Breeder and Shelter Biosecurity Guidelines

 

Isolation facilities

Pet pig housing

pet pig in pen

Sec Foot bath1

Location

Duration of isolation

People biosecurity

Lucy and John copy

Security pressure washer

pet pig show

Health care

Cleaning - All-in/all-out

Necessary after shows

Location of Facility

IMG_0087 copy

Security farm road

Sec poor drainage

Facility location

Nearest public road

Drainage

IMG_0083 copy

Security entrance 2

Sec Car fence

Facility management

Access deterrents

Parking and delivery

Security visitor book

pet pig pig with child 1

pet pig in bed

Visitor book

Visitor protocols

Basic hygiene

 
Biosecurity Checking

 

Sis and Corky 70603

Pet home straw 4

IMG_0081 copy

Feed management

Bedding source and use

Manure management

Sec mouse air louvre broken copy

Pet pig transport crate 2

Pet pig dog 1

Pest/wildlife control

Transportation

Other animals in contact

Compromised/sick animal care

Medicine fridge good1

P2085225 copy

pet pig cold 2

Medication/needle/syringe disposal and use

Care of suspected sick pig

Sickness quarantine

 

For more information on biosecurity in general