Melamine Poisoning

 

A special thanks to Drs Nilubol, Pattanaseth, Boonsri and Leepipatpiboon for the excellent photos

 

Causal agent

Melamine and its metabolites cyanuric acid and ammeline

Age group

All age groups

Clinical signs

Acute

Death

Chronic

Progressive wasting followed by death

 

Inappetance

 

Increased drinking diuresis

 

Pigs may appear pale and yellow

Kidney melamine 2

Kidney melamine 4

Infectivity

 

None

Transmission

 

Through feed contaminated with melamine

Melamine used to falsely inflate feed protein concentration

Post-mortem Lesions

 

Renal failure. Yellow kidneys. Urinary calculi.

Kidney melamine 7 yellow

Kidney melamine 8 yellow

 


Diagnosis

 

Histological crystals in the kidney (arrowed below)

 

Raised BUN and Creatinine

 

Demonstration of crystals in feed materials

 

Kidney melamine 9 yellow Kidney melamine 11 yellow

Treatment

 

Remove contaminated feed

 

No specific provide water to attempt to flush and maintain kidney function

Common differentials

 

PMWS/PCVAD on clinical grounds in chronic cases