Common Developmental / congenital Abnormalities

 

Condition / Level

Possible Cause

Comments

Arthrogryposis - 0.2%

Hereditary

Destroy piglets

Artresia ani - 0.4%

Hereditary

Low heritability

Bent legs

Unknown

Possibly exposure mid pregnancy to toxic agents

Hereditary

Auto recessive gene.

Poisons

Hemlock

Black cherry

Vitamin A

Excess dietary levels or by injection

Cleft palate - 0.2%

Hereditary

Destroy piglets

Congenital tremor

Classical Swine fever virus

Type AI

Unidentified virus

Type AII

Sex linked in male Landrace

Type AIII

Recessive gene in the Saddleback

Type AIV

Trichlorvon or Neguvon poisoning

Type AV

Aujeszky's virus

Demonstration of virus

Organophosphorus poisoning

Overdosing

Dwarfism

Hereditary

Rare

Epitheliogenesis imperfecta

Hereditary

Destroy if large

Haemaphrodite

Hereditary

Low levels

Inguinal hernia - 1.5%

Hereditary

Method unknown

Environmental influences

Inverted teats - 20%

Hereditary

Ensure good teat selection in boars and gilts

Kinky tail - 1.5%

Hereditary

Common

Lymphosarcoma

Hereditary

Uncommon

Malignant hypothermia

Hereditary

Uncommon

Meningocoele

Hereditary

Low incidence

Naval bleeding

Unknown

Associated with shavings

No anus (atresia ani)

Hereditary

Environmental influences

Pietrain creeper syndrome

Hereditary

Uncommon

Pityriasis rosea - 1%

Hereditary Landrace

Common

Porcine stress syndrome (PSS)

Hereditary

Blood test and eliminate

Thrombocytopaenic purpura - 1%

Antibody antigen reaction

Quite common

Splay leg - 1.8%

Hereditary

Common in the Landrace

Fusarium toxin

Mouldy feeds

Environmental

Slippery floors, chilling of piglets

Umbilical hernia - 1.5%

Hereditary

Environmental influences


 

Pictures of some of these conditions

Arthrogryposis

A soft tissue defect causing contraction of joints

Atresia ani

The anus is missing. Females can survive creating a cloaca males die.

Bent legs

The abnormality occurs in the bone skeleton causing deformation of the leg

Cleft palate

A range of conditions with defect of both the hard and soft palate. The piglets cannot drink properly and die

Epitheliogensis impectecta

A full skin thickness defect of the skin present at birth. Some cases are able to survive to finish with scaring

Haemaphrodite

The pig has both male and female reproductive organs, a range of abnormalities classically enlarge clitoris

Inguinal hernia

Failure of inguinal ring and presence of intestinal contents in inguinal region. Be careful at castration

Inverted teats

The teat can be manipulated out of the mammary gland but will end return, piglets cannot suckle

Kinky tail

This is a hereditary problem.

Lymphosarcoma

Picture shows lympho-sarcoma on inside of rib cage. Generally seen in young adults to 16 months

Meningocoele

Defect of the cranium resulting in a prolapse of the meninges under the skin, generally fatal

Pityriasis rosea

Skin disorder seen in 30 to 60kg pigs, while quite dramatic, the pig not sick and spontaneously recovers.

Thrombocytopaenia purpura

Autoimmune problem the colostral antibodies attach the piglet resulting in generalised haemorrhage

Splayleg

Defect of the development of the lumbar muscles. Mangement can assist these pigs. Improve floor footing

Umbilical hernia

Defect of the body wall in the umbilical region. If larger than 30 cm circumference destroy the pig

General facial abnormalities three shown

A range of other abnormalities including inversion of abdominal contents, specific organ defects are all recognised but the genetic or specific cause has not been recognised.

General multiple abnormalities

Defect of the kidneys horseshoe kidneys

Muscle defect full of fluid

Limb defects

Blocky legs

Missing tibia

Missing limbs

Congenital porphyria (left)

Toe defects