Diseases or disorders of the weaner and grow/finish pig


Abscess foreleg

APP-finisher 13 sw

APP lung-lesion in dorsal part kr


Common –associated with streptococci or Arcanobacter pyogenes.

Actinobacillus pleuropneumonia

Can cause severe pleuropneumonia and death.  Classic ‘strawberry’ lesions in the caudal (diaphragmatic) lobe of the lung.  In most pigs APP causes no problems.  When problems occur review environment and stress factors


Leg lame boar hind leg kr

Ascaris liver white spot

Aural haematoma1


Arthritis in growing pigs associated with infection of the joint multiple causes

Ascaris suum

Larval migration through liver results in ‘white spots’.

Aural Haematoma

Associated with shaking of the head.  Can become very large.  Most will resolve with time.

Atrophic Rhinitis 01 sw

Atrophic rhinitis score 5

Aujeszky's disease nervous 2

Atrophic rhinitis – progressive

Often subclinical on a lot of farms.  Toxin from Pasturella multocida results in deformation and twisting of the snout which can be very severe.

Aujeszky’s Disease – Pseudorabies

In naive herds can result in severe pneumonia with neurological signs


Leg bursa on hindleg

Legs Bush Foot


Can cause moderate temporary atrophic rhinitis and conjunctivitis


Common – contact with hard surfaces results in a fluid filled lump blemish on the leg can lead to rejection of gilt

Bush foot/ foot rot

Infection of the toe with streptococci results in severe lameness and swelling of the lower foot

Ecoli bowel oedema eyes

ASF Abdomen 1

Clostridial infection 02 sws

Bowel Oedema

Associated with E. coli F18. Review farm genetic make-up if problems are severe. 

Classical Swine Fever

African Swine Fever

Can result in severe disease and mortality with haemorrhage throughout the carcase.

Clostridial diseases

Clostridial diseases can enter the nursery from the farrowing house.

Coccidiosis scour


Faeces loose


Isospora suis can enter the early nursery with diarrhoea


Common – chronic diarrhoea check housing, stress, and feed/water contamination


The photograph shows the classic loose stool.

prrsConjunctivitis 01sw

Ecoli postweaning diarrhoea

Heart cauliflower valves


Can be very severe on farms – review atrophic rhinitis control and environmental factors

Coliform post-weaning diarrhoea

Common – medication aims to control.  Review environment of nursery


May result in sudden death – streptococci and erysipelas common causes.

Mycoplasma insitu B

Enzootic pneumonia - mycoplasma free

Eperythrozoon suis finisher 02sw

Enzootic (Mycoplasma) pneumonia

Very common – classically results in pneumonia at 60-90 kg.  Generally complicated with secondary infections.  Most are associated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (left) but SIV and Pasteurella (right) can produce very similar clinical and pathological signs.


Clinically uncommon may result in anaemia.  Associated with Mycoplasma haemosuis.


Vice flank biting 2



Can be explosive in the finishing herd, characteristic diamond shaped skin markings shown.

Flank biting

Stressed pigs bite at other pigs flanks.  Often associated with well docked pigs.  Check for draughts

Foot and mouth disease

Vesicle and ulcers suddenly on the feet and snout – any suspicion must contact your vet immediately

Legs broken elbow

Anaemic grower gastric ulcer

Gastric ulcers 02sw


When recognized – euthanasia the only option.

Gastric ulcers

Common – result of not eating for 24 hours and maintained by fine feed and stress.  Note pale dead pig left and large ulcer in stomach right

Scrotal hernia large

Hernia Umbilical too large 1

Glassers general

Hernia – scrotal

Generally small, problem when castrating

Hernia – umbilical

Can become very large – once over 30 cm, damaged or in contact with the ground – euthanize.

Glasser’s disease

Common post-weaning classically - polyserositis

greasy pig-1 chronic kr

Kinky back 2


Greasy pig disease

Common in nursery – check for stressors leading to fighting

Kinky Back

When recognized and severe euthanase


Consider Leptospirosis from rodent., PMWS or anaemia

Foot lame  weaners

Deformed legs 2

Lame swollen joint hind 2

Lameness in  general –

Very common with many causes as shown

- Deformed legs

Review breeding program

- infections

Review flooring management

Lame osteochondrosis B

Legs sore feet weaner

Leg ulcer bad kr


Very common only painful when bone surface exposed

- sore feet - bruised

Review flooring type and management

- sores

Review flooring management

Skin insect bite 2

Security rodent dead

Lice B

Insect bites

Common leads to damage in skin condition PRRSV risk


L. icterohaemorrhagica can cause hepatitis and death.  Pigs may present with jaundice.


Uncommon now – Haematopinus suis – large biting louse – easily seen.

Mange itchy pig

Middle ear gross 2


Mange mites (Sarcopties scabiei)

Common – causes scratching and increased stress in the finishing stage

Middle ear disease

Associated with infection from the nose and Eustachian tube to the ear.

Mulberry heart disease

Common - affects the strongest pigs 2-3 weeks post-weaning resulting in sudden death.

Myco OCD SN4


Worm stongyle

Mycoplasma arthritis

M. hyosynoviae – clinically more common in introduced gilts or boars – synovitis and shifting lameness.


Associated with a deficiency of zinc or excess of calcium


Check feacal worm egg numbers.  Photograph shows a strongyle egg

Pulmonary abscess

Skin pyriasis rosea

PDNS sp4


Very common – secondary infection of the lung – picture shows lung abscesses originated from a tail bite.

Pityriasis rosea

Common in growing pigs.  The lesions are genetic in origin and self resolve.


Generally uncommon, unless farm suffers from PMWS.  Need to differentiate from CSF

PIA variable pigs2

PIA regional ileitishosepipe

PIA necrotic enteritis PM

Porcine Enteropathy  Ileitis PIA Common – numerous forms of Porcine enteropathy (ileitis or porcine intestinal adenomatosis).  Result in uneven growth in the finishing phase.

- Regional ileitis

Severe thickening of the distal ileum results in very emaciated pigs.

- necrotic ileitis

Severe form with damage to the lining of the intestinal tract which dies and is shed.

PIA haemorrhagic gross PM

PIA moderate and mild

PRRSV nursery kr

- haemorrhagic ileitis

More often seen in older finishing pigs, sudden death with small intestines full of blood.

- Porcine Intestinal adenomatosis - PIA

Occurs in most pigs areas of thickening in distal ileum.


Very common. Contributes to severe respiratory disease in the nursery and growing pigs.  Also may have severe reproductive effects.  Difficult to control.

Post mortem external

PMWS 04 sw



Genetic condition of pigs – results in sudden death, classically in transport

Post weaning Multi Systemic Syndrome

Can produce severe debilitating disease is some countries killing 20% of post-weaned pigs.

Preputial ulcers

Areas of wet eczema around the skin on the end of the prepuce – can be infected with Clostridia.

Rectumprolaps 02sw

Rectal stricture gross

Rectal stricture

Prolapse of the rectum

Common – may be difficult to treat successfully, many progresses to rectal strictures.

Rectal stricture

Often a consequence of rectal prolapse or biting of the rectal mucosa during defecation.  Once recognized euthanasia the only option.

Skin grower staphbite2

Skin ring worm


Pustular dermatitis

Common in young growing pigs similar to acne in man.


Uncommon.  Infected skin show increasing circular areas

Salmonellosis – cholerasuis

Specific salmonella of pigs – resulting in diarrhoea and pneumonia in the same group of pigs

Salmonella pig gross

Lame spinal abs 2

Diarrhoea finisher

Salmonella- typhimurium

Together with other types of salmonellae  cause mild to severe diarrhoea and enteritis

Spinal abscess

Sudden presentation with hind limb paralysis, but the front end is fine. Common with tail bitten pigs.

Spirochaetal diarrhea

Brachyspira pilosicoli resulting in a colitis and chronic diarrhoea

Legs Shoulder abscess

Meningitis Strep

Swine Pox gross

Streptococci infections

Many abscess, foot problems and some pneumonias are associated with streptococci infections

Streptococcal meningitis

Infection in the meninges with streptococci suis II results in a severe, often fatal meningitis

Swine pox

Common and self limiting, small red spot, develops into vesicle which ruptures and scab turns black.  Resolves over 3 weeks.

Skin sunburn2

Swine Dysentery-acute 03sw

Swine dysentery PM


Can occur in indoor pigs if insufficient protection offered against the sun

Swine dysentery

Associated with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae can result in a severe, often fatal haemorrhagic colitis and typhlitis.

Swine Influenza running nose

Twist bloated pig 1

Torsion spleen stomach

Swine influenza

Rapid spreading cough and pyrexia in the finishing herd characterizes flu.

Torsion of the intestines

Sudden death in grow/finish pigs may commonly be associated with an intestinal torsion, shown is the gross pig, torsion of the stomach/spleen and on the right torsion of the liver.


TB Neck Lymphnodes

Cannibalism 07sw


Disease less fatal in weaned pigs but still may be associated with chronic diarrhoea.


Generally diagnosed at slaughter with enlarge caseous lymph nodes as shown

Vice – Ear biting

Stressed pigs may present with a variety of vice.  Ear biting is common in weaner/grower pigs

Vice Ear sucking B2

Cannibalism 01sw

Vice penile sucking 1

Ear sucking

Ear suckling more common in the nursery stage

Flank biting

Flank biting is generally seen in the finishing herd often as a replacement to tail biting

Penile sucking

Generally occurs in the nursery can lead to deformities of the penis

Tail biten severe

Grower big pen

Water fighting over drinker

Tail biting

In grow/finish pigs stress often present with mild to severe tail biting.

Yersinia infections

Generally no clinical signs, reacts with Brucella tests.

Water deprivation

Salt poisoning final stage of water deprivation.  Chronic shortage very common.

Repro mycotoxin vulva B




1 to 5mg/kg results in swelling and reddening of vulva and enlargements of the teats in pre-pubertal gilts