Respiratory defense mechanisms

Resp anatomy 2

Organ

Example defense

Defense interfered with

 

 

Disease/disorder

Environmental

Eyes

Vision

Chlamydia

Conjunctivitis

Dust

Ammonia

Tongue

Taste

 

Food - palatability

Mouth/pharynx

Amylase

Sneezing

Aujeszky’s Disease

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

Haemophilus parasuis

Streptococcus suis et al.,

Mycoplasma hyorhinis

Pasteurella multocida

E. coli

PCV2

Other mycoplasma’s

 

Tonsils

Normal microbiota

Lymphoid tissue

Rapid healing

Washing with liquids

Mycotoxins

Epiglottis/larynx

Size

Separates swallowing and breathing

 

 

Nose

Small entrance

 

 

Turbinates

Size

Mucocilary escalator down to throat

High blood volume

High humidity

Centrifugal forces

Smell

Immune response

Natural microbiota

Lysosymes and other antimicrobial agents in mucus.

Sneezing

Inclusion body rhinitis

Bordetella bronchiseptica

Pasturella multocida toxins

Post-weaning sneezing

Pasteurella multocidia

Mycoplasma’s

Ammonia

Other poison gases

Dust

Low water

Trachea

Length

Corners/bends

High air velocity

Centrifugal forces

Mucocilary escalator up to throat

Immune response

Lysosymes and other antimicrobial agents in mucus

Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

Swine Influenza

Low water

Ammonia

Dust

Right apical bronchus

Bronchus and bronchi

Lung general

Ascaris suum

Metastrongylus apri

Classical Swine Fever

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

Pasteurella multocidia

Streptococci

Archanobacterium pyogenes

Alveolus

Alveolar macrophage

Immune response

Alveolar fluid

PRRSv

Dust: 3.6-1 µm

Pleura

Immune response - Fibrosis

Glässer’s Disease

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

Tail biting and other vices

Flooring
Vice issues

Respiratory lymphoid tissues

Immune response

PCV2

SIV

Mycotoxins

Low Vit E

Colostrum intake

Stomach

Acid

Proteases

Vomiting

Gastric ulcer

Hyostrongylus dentatum

Low water

Not eating

Feed particle size

Intact skin epidermis

Normal microbiota

Continuous surface

Vice – tail biting etc

Damage to feet

Fighting

Rough floors

Sharp edges

Pig processing

Injections

 


Intestinal defense mechanisms

Ant digestive tract copy

Organ

Example defense

Defense interfered with

 

 

Disease/disorder

Environmental

Eyes

Vision

Avoidance of unusual food

Chlamydia

Conjunctivitis

Food colouring – note pigs are colour blind

Nose

Smell

Avoidance of unusual or unpalatable food

 

Toxin smells

Tongue

Taste and feel food

 

Toxin taste

Sharp objects

Mouth/pharynx

Teeth to break up food particles

Salivary enzyme actions on sugars

Aujeszky’s Disease

Haemophilus parasuis

Streptococcus suis

Mycoplasma hyorhinis

PCV2

E. coli

Salmonella

Clostridia

Teeth hygiene

Tooth wear

Stones

Sham chewing

Tonsils

Normal microbiota

Lymphoid tissue

Rapid healing

Mycotoxins

Epiglottis

Size

Separates swallowing and breathing

Coughing

 

 

Stomach

Acidic environment

Proteases

Mucus

Pyloric torus protect stomach from alkaline

Gastric ulcer

Hyostrongylus dentantum

Low water

Not eating

Feed particle size

Small intestine

Sudden change in pH

Bile production

Digestive enzymes

Rapid cell turn over (every 3 to 6 days)

Mucus

One way flow - peristalsis

Microbiota – Lactobacilli and Bacilli

Large amounts of diluting water

Microaerophilic

Lymphoid tissue

Epithelial attachment

Diluting effect of water

Genetic attachment changes – F4 F18

Defensins

Tight junction epithelium

Immune response

Diarrhoea

Clostridium perfringens

Clostridium difficile

Enteric Diarrhoea virus

Escherichia coli

Isospora suis

Lawsonia intracellularis

Salmonellosis

TGE
PED

Trichuris suis

Yersinia enterocolitica

Strongyle/parasites

PCV2

Myotoxins

Vit E

Low iron

Low water availability

Poor colostrum intake

Large intestine

Ileocaecal valve

Diluting water control

One way flow - peristalsis

Change in O2 concentration

Indigenous microbiota

Diarrhoea

Brachyspira hyodysenteriae

Brachyspira pilosicoli

Other Brachyspira

 

Rectum/anus

One way flow

Defecation

Rectal prolapsed

Salmonellosis

Chilling and piling

Coughing

Liver

 

Clostridium novii

 

Intact skin epidermis

Normal microbiota

Continuous surface

Vice – tail biting etc

Damage to feet

Fighting

Rough floors

Sharp edges

Pig processing

Injections

 

 


Urogenital defense mechanisms

 

Organ

Example defense

Defense interfered with

 

 

Disease/disorder

Environmental

External genitalia

Shape

Flushing sterile urine

Normal microbiota

Vulva biting

Poor water flow

Other vices

Urethra

Male - length

 

 

Bladder

Transitional layer

Glycopolypeptide layer

Cell loss

Epithelial attachement, E. coli F1, P

Urination

Flushing sterile urine

Actinobaculum suis

Escherichia coli

Streptococcus suis

Crystaluria

Water restriction
Feed minerals

Feed toxins

Floor hygiene

Floor mobility - stance

Ureterovesical junction

Length

Colosure during urination

Sterile urine

Ureter

Sterile urine

Pelvis

Sterile urine

Pyamid shape – Duct of Belini

Sterile urine

Nephron

Sterile urine

Actinobaculum suis

Leptospirosis

Glomerulus

Sterile urine

Filter blood

PDNS

Vagina

Robust immune defence

Especially under progesterone

Normal microbiotia

Flushing of sterile urine

AI contamination

Vaginitis with streptococci and Staphylococci et al.,

Water restriction

Floor hygiene

 

Cervix

Closure

Flushing of sterile urine

Normal microbiota

Cerviculitis with variety of environmental bacteria

Water restriction

Floor hygiene

Uterus

Robust immune defence under progesterone

Parvovirus

Aujeszky’s Disease

PRRSv

Enterovirus

JEV

Streptococci

Leptospirosis

Brucella suis

PCV2

Congenital tremor virus

Classical Swine Fever

Feed – mycotoxins

Midwifery practices

Mating practices

Tubal junction/oviduct

Controlled flow

Restricted entry of semen

 

 

Ovary

 

Cystic ovaries

“Stress” issues

Prepuce

Normal microbiota

High pH

Preputial diverticulitis

 

Vas Deferens

Length

Ejaculation

 

 

Reproductive organs

 

 

 

Testes

Blood testes barrier

Brucella suis