Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus

 

Causal agent

A coronavirus closely related but distinct from Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV) and Porcine Epidemic Diarrhoea (PED)

 

Clinical Signs

Clinical signs may go unnoticed or seen as a mild respiratory infection coupled with a fever and loss of appetite for a couple of days.  There are no intestinal disorders associated with PRCV

 

Pathogenesis (course of the disease)

PRCV infects the respiratory tract.  This is distinct from TGEV, which infects the intestinal tract. Transmission is by air/contact/coughing not through faecal spread.  Transmission can occur over many miles

 

Diagnosis

Unless specific methods are used can be difficult to distinguish from TGEV resulting in misdiagnosis.  Specific monoclonal antibodies are used to distinguish between TGEV and PRCV

 

Control

There are no known control strategies to control the virus once on the farm.  Eradication may be achieved though hysterectomy or segregated early weaning protocols.  However, in countries with PRCV re-infection is highly likely

 

Importance

On its own PRCV causes few, if any clinical signs.  However, it may play a role in the Post-weaning Porcine Respiratory Complex, especially when combined with other respiratory agents such as Swine Influenza (SIV) and Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRSv)