Diagnostic Specimens and Tests for the Major Porcine Diseases

 

Disease

Suspected

Specimen

Sample

Preparation

Laboratory Procedure

Abortion

Foetus: liver, kidney, stomach content, thoracic fluid. Placenta. Swabs

Sow: paired sera

Refrigerate

Culture-Sensitivity Leptospira-FAT

Parvovirus EM

Serology

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

Lung Swabs

 

Serum

Refrigerate

Culture-Sensitivity

Serotyping

Serology

CF 1:4 suspect

CF 1:8 positive

Anthrax

Impression smear from retropharyneal fluid in swollen neck

 

Stain for Bacillus capsule does not form readily in pigs

Arthritis

Exudate, joint fluid, synovia swab and tissue

Joint fluid

Whole joint piglet and weaner

Refrigerate

Formalin

Refrigerate

Culture-Sensitivity

Histopathology

Serology

Atrophic Rhinitis

Snout, turbinates, nasal swab and tissue

Nasal Section

Nasal swab

Refrigerate

Formalin

Culture-Sensitivity

Pm toxin test

Histopathology

View and Score

ELISA toxin presence

Circovirus II

Swollen lymph nodes, selected tissues

Formalin

Histopathology

IFA and IHC

Coccidiosis

Faeces

Small intestine smear (wash away faeces first)

Refrigerate

Air dried smear

Formalin

Smear, flotation

Histopathology

Colibacillosis

Several acutely affected pigs

Duodenum, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver smears and tissue. Note alkaline pH of contents.

Live

Refrigerate

Formalin

Culture-Sensitivity

Serotyping

Histopathology

Toxin gene typing PCR

Colostrum

Heart Blood

Refrigerate

IgG

> 10 mg/ml normal

Cryptosporidium

Small intestine smear and tissue

Refrigerate

Formalin

Smear

Histopathology

Cystitis/

pyelonephritis

Renal pelvis

Refrigerate

Culture-sensitivity anaerobic

Cytomegalovirus

Turbinates, lung, kidney

Formalin

Histopathology

Enteritis

(non-specific)

Acutely affected pigs

pH of contents

Small & large intestine, liver, mesenteric lymph node swab. smear, tissue

Intestine content

Live

Refrigerate

Formalin

Contents

View villi

Acid viral

Alkaline E. coli

Culture-Sensitivity

Smear Clostridium

Rotavirus

Histopathology

Clostridial toxin

Enzootic/ Mycoplasma pneumonia

 

Lung, respiratory lymph nodes, swab and tissue

Serum

Refrigerate

Formalin

 

View and score

Culture-sensitivity

IHC

PCR

Serology

S/P <0.3 negative

0.3-0.4 suspect

> 0.4 positive

Erysipelas

Heart, lymph node, liver, spleen, swollen joints swabs.

Serum

Refrigerate

Formalin

Culture-Sensitivity

Serology

Histopathology

Genetic examination

Blood sample unclotted

Tissue

Note use separate needle for each pig

Separate needle

Refrigerate/

freeze

PCR

Haemophilus parasuis

(Glasser's disease polyserositis)

Sick pig

Cavity of joint fluids

Serous membranes, meninges, lung

Serum

Note organism dies rapidly

Live

Refrigerate

Formalin

Culture-Sensitivity

Serotyping

Serology

Histopathology


Greasy Pig

Affected animal swabs from skin

Live

Refrigerate

Culture-Sensitivity

Ileitis (Lawsonia intracellularis)

Ileum Tissue

Formalin

Fresh refrigerate

Histopathology

PCR

IHC

Influenza

Trachea, lung, nasal swabs (in transport media)

Serum

Refrigerate

Formalin

Virus Isolation

Immunoperoxidase

PRC

Serology

HI > 1:40 positive

Leptospira

Foetus: kidney, thoracic fluid swab and smear

Oviduct smear
Sow: sera (paired)

Refrigerate

FAT

Serology

1:100 suspect

1:200 diagnostic

Mastitis

Difficult to get a diagnostic sample

Refrigerate

Culture and identification

Meningitis

CSF (Cerebral spinal fluid) before cutting the skin of the head

Brain and meninges

Refrigerate

 

Formalin

Culture and identification

 

Histopathology

Mulberry Heart

Heart and Liver

Formalin

Histopathology

Mycoplasma

arthritis

Joint serosa

Joint fluid

Formalin

Refrigerate

Histopathology

Serology

Mycoplasma haemosuis

Blood smear

Air dry

 

Mycotoxins

Tissues submit at least 100g

Food materials submit at least 1 kg (avoid condensation and fugal growth during transport)

Freeze

Place feed in paper bag

 

Oedema Disease

Stomach, intestine, kidney, brain, liver

Sick live pig

Refrigerate

 

Formalin

Culture-Sensitivity

Serotyping

Histopathology

Parvovirus (PPV)

Foetus: liver, thoracic fluid

Sow: paired sera

Refrigerate

EM

Serology

PMWS

Lymph nodes 5 from around the bodies

Formalin

Histopathology

PRCV

Serum

Lung tissue

Formalin

Serology (note differential test re-TGE)

IHC

PRRSv

Lung tissue

Thymus

Tonsilar scrape and biopsy use Dacron swab

Blood serum via Dacron swab

Serum

Refrigerate

Formalin

 

 

Virus Isolation

Histopathology

IHC

PCR

Sequencing

Serology

Rotavirus

Middle and lower jejunum, upper ileum, faeces

Refrigerate

Formalin

Latex agglutination.

Histopathology

IHC

Salmonellosis

Colon, liver, lung, spleen, faeces, mesenteric lymph node swabs

Live sick pig

Refrigerate

 

 

Culture-Sensitivity

Serotyping

 

Streptococcus

Brain, CSF, lung, joint

 

Serum

Refrigerate

Culture-Sensitivity

Serotyping IHC

Serology

Swine Dysentery

Affected pigs

faeces, colon

Live

Refrigerate

Formalin

Culture-Sensitivity

Darkfield

Histopathology

IHC

PCR

Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE)

Affected pigs

faeces, small intestine contents and tissue

Serum

Jejunal contents acidic

Live

Formalin

Histopathology

IHC

Serology

NA 1:4 positive

Water depravation

Brain

Formalin

Histopathology

 

Abbreviations

CF = Compliment Fixation

ELISA = Enzyme-linked Immunosorbant assay

EM = Electron Microscopy

FAT = Fluorescent antibody test

IFA = Indirect Fluorescent Antibody

IHC = Immunohistochemistry

PCR = Polymerase chain reaction