Jarvan Warty Pig

 

Scientific name

Sus verrucosus

Global distribution

Java and nearby islands of Madura and Bawean

Habitat

Tropical forest

Conservation status

Near threatened

Physical characteristics

Body size

 

900 1,800 mm. Shoulder height 550 1,100 mm

Weight

Variable from 40-350 kg

Males usually larger than females

Colouring

Dark gray to black or brown

Hair

Stiff bristles and usually some finer fur. The pelage is often quite scant and the tail is only lightly covered.

There may be a mane on the nape and side whiskers.

Wart

3 pairs of warts in the male

Piglet colouring

Wild piglets are stripped.

Tail

300 mm

Anatomical points

Peculiarities

The preorbital fosa is always deeply excavated with overhanging, shelflike borders

Dental formulae

( i 3/3, c 1/1, pm 4/4, m 3/3) x 2 44

The canines in males the inferior surface is broader than the posterior surface. The female canines are diminutive and tend to point simply down (if the upper tooth) or up (if the lower).

 

Behaviour points

Maturing age

5-12 months male

6- months female

Mating ritual

Males join group for mating and then leave.

Conflict

Animals walk parallel to each other, edge closer until shoulders touch and then shoving begins.

They may rear up, lean against each other and attempt to knock each other off balance.

In neither yields, thrust with the mouth open and tusks bared

Seasonal breeding

Breeding occurs throughout the year in the tropics, birth peaks shortly before or just after the rains. In the temperate regions the young are born in the spring.

Oestrus period

18-24 days

Gestation period

112 120 days

Litter size and lactation

6-12 up to 40 domestic breeds

Lactation

6 pairs of teats. Lie down to suckle.

Weaning age

8-12 weeks

Family groups

Small groups of 4-6 females sow and litter. Males solitary.

Cooling behaviour

Mud wallows and avoidance shade.

Sleeping

Construct crude shelters by cutting grass

Peak activity

Nocturnal and crepuscular

Swift runners and good swimmers

Range

May migrate over distances. 2-15 km overnight within an area of 20-150 ha. Home range over a period of 2-3 months is 500-1,000 ha for adult females and 1,000 -2,000 ha for adult males.

Diet

Omnivore fruit, seeds, roots, grasses, insects, small mammals and scavenging

Diseases/

disorders

Full range of pig diseases